Aids is one of the most dreaded diseases on this earth, a disease which doesn’t have any 100% treatment till today`s date, there are a lot of predictions about its starting. According to the scientists, HIV probably first appeared in man between 40 to 100 years ago. It was said to be started 100 years ago in any African community ,there it lived for several decades, it transmitted to the other parts of the world when the number of international travelers started increasing. It reached to the America in 1970`s, there it was common in gay males and intravenous drug abusers. According to the reports, AIDS was first recognized in 1981.
AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Acquired signifies that this disease is not hereditary or implicated by medication, immune means that it is related to our immune system which helps us to fight against diseases and foreign microbes, deficiency is for lack of cells which are normally found in our bodies and good for us, syndrome means a bunch of diseases, symptoms and signs of various disorders.
HIV is the virus which causes AIDS; HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. The virus alters the immune system, making people much more vulnerable to diseases and infections and it worsens as the disease progresses. This virus is found in fluids of the human body for example semen, blood, breast milk, vaginal fluid. The virus is passed from one person to another through blood-to-blood and sexual contact. In addition, infected pregnant women can pass HIV to their babies during pregnancy, deliver the baby, and through breastfeeding.
HIV can be transmitted in many ways, such as sex, blood transfusion, and contaminated hypodermic needles.
Once this virus enters our blood, it starts attacking T-cells which are fighter cells of our body, they start to get bind in T-cells t starts releasing its viral RNA into the T-cells, then it transforms into complex viral DNA, this transformation into new complexes DNA`s and mass of RNA comes with a lot of genetic codes and sequences which are nearly impossible to breakdown that’s what makes this disease dreaded so far. They start destroying CD4 cells in thousands, the role of CD4 cells is to send signals to the other immune cells, it is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily.
AIDS can be divided into three stages in starting it is very asymptomatic; symptoms which get started are a headache, mild fever, swollen glands, etc. Next stage can be combined with diarrhea, fatigue, night sweat, prolonged fever, weight loss, etc. The last stage takes about 10 years to become fully blown AIDS, patient’s immune system is totally destroyed and the person gets infected by various diseases and cancers. This stage is easily recognized and a man survives for about 3-4 years after entering this stage.
Two tests should be carried out in order to confirm HIV infection-ELISA and Western Blot. ELISA is simple and fast while latterly is expensive, more accurate and time-consuming.
This disease is only transferable with the exchange of body fluids, with casual contacts there is not to a single case of acquiring AIDS. Also, AIDS is not a sentence to death, there are lots of medicines which can slow down the deterioration of immune system, and can give more years to live. Awareness is very much required to stop such kind of diseases, and this can be done by various ways. On an individual level, we can aware other people and we should behave normally with such type of patients.
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