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Medicine and Drugs

Why We Retch or Vomit?

Queasiness (urge to vomit) and spewing (vomit), for the most part, happen together however they can likewise happen alone.....Read More

Paternity Test while Pregnant

A paternity test is a test that can be done prenatal and to know the DNA of the child and match it with the DNA of father. This is known as paternity.....Read More

What is Edward's Syndrome?

Edward syndrome is also known as trisomy 18. It is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of the third copy of chromosome 18.....Read More

What is Spinal Muscular Atrophy?

Spinal muscular atrophy is a genetic disease that affects the nervous system. It generally affects the part of the nervous system which regulates the voluntary movements.....Read More

Fragile X Syndrome: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Fragile X syndrome is a genetic disorder, also known as a martin-bell syndrome, can cause many symptoms like disability in learning, delay in development of the child.....Read More

Facts about Huntington's Disease

Huntington's disease is also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in the death of brain cells, a general lack of coordination.....Read More

What is Aicardi Syndrome?

Aicardi Syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by the absence of one of the most important structures of the brain known as the corpus callosum.....Read More

What is Centronuclear Myopathy?

Centronuclear Myopathy is a condition in which there is a weakness in the muscles or atrophy of skeletal muscles. The severity of the disease depends on the individual.....Read More

What is Klinefelter Syndrome?

klinefelter Syndrome is the presence of an extra copy of X chromosome in the males results in 47, XXY type condition in the males.....Read More

Some Common Example of Beneficial Mutation

Mutations are changing in our genetic code; DNA is the hereditary molecule present in every individual that is responsible for every physical appearance of our body.....Read More

Neurofibromatosis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Neurofibromatosis is a condition in which the tumors grow in the nervous system, it is of generally three types- neurofibromatosis type 1(NF 1), neurofibromatosis type 2(NF 2) and schwannomatosis.....Read More

What is Friedreich Ataxia?

Friedreich Ataxia an Autosomal recessive inherited disease that causes damage to the nervous system, it leads to the poor coordination, scoliosis, heart disease and diabetes.....Read More

What is Angelman Syndrome?

Angelman syndrome is a neuro development disorder characterized by severe intellectual and developmental disability.....Read More

What is Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis?

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis is also known as tree man illness, it is very rare disease and an autosomal recessive disease.....Read More

What is Werewolf Syndrome?

Werewolf syndrome also known as Ambras syndrome and hypertrichosis is an abnormal amount of hair growth on the body.....Read More

What are Epicanthal Folds?

Epicanthal folds are nothing but skin folds of upper eyelid covering the inner corner of the eye, they are also known as plica palpebronasalis.....Read More

Common Genetic Disorders in Children

Genetic disorders are a category of disease that includes chronic disease, the problem with development, birth defects that are generally inherited.....Read More

What is Neurofibromatosis?

Neurofibromatosis is a genetic disorder that causes the formation of a tumor on nerve tissue, including the brain and spinal cord.....Read More

What is Tay - Sachs disease?

Tay -Sachs disease is an Autosomal recessive disorder that is caused by hexosaminidase A deficiency.....Read More

What is Mitochondrial Myopathy?

Mitochondrial myopathy is nothing but the disease of mitochondria that is a specific part of the cell that functions as the power house of the cell.....Read More

What is Mitochondrial Disease?

Mitochondrial disease is caused due to loss of function of mitochondria or we can say the abnormal function of mitochondria in the body.....Read More

Pompe Disease: Symptoms and Treatment

Pompe disease is a genetic disorder in which all the nerves and muscles of the body are damaged.....Read More

Genetic Disorders in Babies

Genetic disorders that it is related to the genes and it is nothing but the change in normal structure and function of genes.....Read More

What is Hurler's Syndrome?

Hurler's syndrome or you can say gargoylism is a type of genetic disorder, it occurs due to deficiency of an enzyme known as iduronidase.....Read More

Symptoms of Huntington's Disease

Huntington’s disease commonly causes symptoms which are related to movement, cognitive and psychiatric disorders.....Read More

Examples of Most Common Genetic Diseases

There are several a genetic disease from which humanly suffers. Here we are going to discuss few most common genetic diseases.....Read More

What is Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome?

Lesch-Nyhan is known by another name also i.e. Nyhan syndrome or juvenile gout. It is a type of inherited disease which occurs very rarely.....Read More

A to Z List of Genetic disease and Genetic disorder

The reason behind the genetic disease is the change or abnormality in the chromosomes or in the genes.....Read More

Prader-Willi Syndrome Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Prader- Willi Syndrome is a genetic disorder that is caused due to the loss of function of some particular genes.....Read More

What is Spino-Cerebellar Ataxia?

Spino-Cerebellar ataxia is also known as spinocerebellar atrophy or spinocerebellar degeneration is a degenerative, progressive genetic disease.....Read More

List of Common Hereditary Disease

Hereditary diseases are the diseases that are transferred genetically from one generation to other generation.....Read More

List of Common Genetic Disorders in Humans

Genetic disorders are genetic problems which are caused due to the one or more abnormalities in the genome.....Read More

Facts About Albinism

Albinism is a congenital disorder featured by the partial or complete absence of pigment in skin, hairs, and eyes.....Read More

What is Fragile X Syndrome?

Fragile X Syndrome is a type of genetic disorder that has symptoms like moderate intellectual disability.....Read More

What is Albinism?

In humans, albinism is a congenital disorder which is characterized by the partial or complete absence of pigment in skin, hairs and in eyes.....Read More

What is Prader-Willi Syndrome?

Prader- Willi Syndrome is a genetic disorder that is caused due to the loss of function of some particular genes.....Read More

Examples of Genetic Disease and Disorders

A genetic disorder or diseases are problems caused by the abnormalities in the genome; generally, genetic disorders are present from birth.....Read More

Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus is one of the most bacteria in bacteria world. These are the very small 1um in diameter and spherical cocci.....Read More

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Bacteria

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the troublesome bacteria which cause nosocomial infections. They are a part of Pseudomonas group.....Read More

What is Silicosis?

Silicosis is lung disease caused by inhalation of tiny particles of silica dust. Thousands of people die in a year all around the world.....Read More

How to Prevent Ebola

Ebola virus disease or Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a severe and fatal disease. It is caused by a virus of the Filoviridae family.....Read More

How to Diagnose Measles

Measles is a highly infectious respiratory condition caused by infection with measles virus or Rubeola virus.....Read More

What is Embolism?

An embolism is obstruction of blood vessels of different organs and body parts by an embolus.....Read More

Warning Signs of Cervical Cancer

Women of all ages have the chance of developing cervical cancer after they become sexually active.....Read More

What is Graves' Disease?

Graves’ disease also is known as toxic diffuse goiter, are an autoimmune disease and the most common cause of hyperthyroidism.....Read More

How to Stop Nosebleed

Nosebleed is a common problem for many people, is the bleeding from the blood vessels in the nose and also known as epistaxis.....Read More

Mastitis: The Surgical approach for Mastitis

Mastitis also called mammitis is inflammation of breast tissue. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen responsible, but S. epidermidis and streptococci are also.....Read More

Puncture of the Shoulder Joint

Puncture in the shoulder is performed when there is an indication of inflammation (arthritis) with exudation and contraindication of haemarthrosis.....Read More

Puncture and Arthrotomy of the Elbow Joint

Puncture of the elbow joint is performed due to ejaculation of several pathological fluids which get accumulated due to several infections.....Read More

Cystotomy: Opening of the Urinary Bladder

Cystotomy or opening of the urinary bladder is performed because of several pathological occurrences like urolithiasis, the presence of any external or foreign body in the urinary bladder.....Read More

Puncture of the Urinary Bladder

Capillary puncture of the urinary bladder is performed in such case when there is an indication of urine retention and failure to evacuate it with catheterization.....Read More

Pleural Puncture - The Operative Methods for Pleural Puncture

Pleural puncture is also known as thoracocentesis or thoracentesis is performed when the plural cavity gets filled up with pleural effusion due to several pathological occurrences.....Read More

Puncture, Arthrotomy, and Resection of the Knee Joint

Puncture on knee joint is performed when there is any kind of fluid is accumulated in the knee joint due to different pathological processes.....Read More

Puncture of the Hip Joint and Arthrotomy of the Hip Joint

Accumulation of pathological fluids in the hip regions required puncture of the hip joint. There are two methods which are generally applied for the puncture of the hip joints.....Read More

Topographic Anatomy of Mastoid Region of the Head

The mastoid region (regio mastoidea) of the head has three borders; anterior, posterior and Superior - continuation of the zygomatic arch.....Read More

Topographic Anatomy of Temporal Region of the Head

To study the topographic anatomy of the temporal region of the head (regio temporalis); starts with the borders, it has three borders; anterior, superior and inferior.....Read More

Topographic Anatomy of Fronto-Parieto-Occipital Region of the Head

Fronto-Parieto-Occipital Region (regio frontoparietooccipitalis) has three borders; anterior, posterior, and bilateral.....Read More

What is Operative Surgery?

Operative Surgery is a section of surgery which studies the principles, methods, and techniques of surgery.....Read More

Topographic Anatomy: The Gross Anatomy

Topographic anatomy or Gross anatomy is the main foundation of operative surgery; it is the basic clinical science for the diagnosis and treatment of different diseases.....Read More

Plague: The Clinical and Pathological Science behind Plague

Plague is fulminant quarantine infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis. The bacilli are attributed to anthropozoonosis as they also cause the disease in some rodents.....Read More

Anthrax: The Basic Pathological Science behind Anthrax

Anthrax is a fulminant infectious disease from the group of anthropozoonosis. The disease is caused by the special rod - Bacillus anthracis.....Read More

Sepsis: The Basic Pathology of Sepsis

Sepsis is mostly acute, severe and generalized form of different pyogenic infections (usually staphylococci, streptococci, some gram-negative bacteria, fungi).....Read More

Leprosy: The Basic Clinical and Pathological Science of Leprosy

Leprosy is a chronic severe generalized infection of a human being which is characterized by the specific affection of the cooler parts of the body.....Read More

Histamine Type 2 Receptor Antagonists

Histamine Type 2 Receptor Antagonists, are the class of drugs that block the action of histamine at the histamine H2 receptors of the parietal cells in the stomach.....Read More

Hemoblastoses: Hematosarcomas and Leukemias

Hemoblastoses is a group of tumorous diseases of hemopoietic tissues are of two types hematosarcomas and leukemias.....Read More

Gestosis: The Disorder during Pregnancy

Gestosis represent itself toxicosis of the second part of pregnancy as a result of the inability of the woman’s organism to adapt itself to a pregnancy.....Read More

Diseases Related with Dysfunctions of Suprarenal Gland or Adrenal Glands

Adrenal gland or suprarenal gland is one of the important endocrine glands, there are several diseases related to the dysfunction of the adrenal gland.....Read More

Diseases Related with Pituitary Gland

Pituitary Gland is the master gland as it secrets all those hormones which are responsible for the functioning of other glands.....Read More

What are Nephrosclerosis and Uremia?

Nephrosclerosis manifests itself in bilateral atrophy and prominent sclerosis of the renal parenchyma. Uremia is chronic renal failure.....Read More

What is Nephrolithiasis/ Urolithiasis?

Nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis is a chronic disease of the kidneys and urinary tract which manifests itself by the formation of calculi (stones) of different chemical composition.....Read More

What is Interstitial Nephritis?

Interstitial Nephritis is characterized by predominant involvement into the inflammatory process of the renal stroma (interstitium).....Read More

What is Tubulopathies?

Tubulopathies are a group of renal diseases characterized by predominant lesion of tubules. Acute and chronic tubulopathy are differentiated.....Read More

What is Glomerulopathies?

Glomerulopathies are characterized by predominant lesion of glomeruli which includes in themselves four main types of disorders.....Read More

Cirrhosis of the Liver

Cirrhosis of the liver is a disease characterized by perverse regeneration of the liver parenchyma in response to its acute or chronic injury.....Read More

Hepatosis: Diseases of Liver due to Degenerative Process

Hepatosis are a group of diseases of the liver characterized by the predominance of degenerative processes of its parenchyma.....Read More

What is Nonspecific Ulcerative Colitis?

Nonspecific ulcerative colitis (NUC) is the recurrent inflammation of the large intestine characterized by hemorrhages, suppuration, ulceration of the mucosa.....Read More

Appendicitis: The Inflammation of Appendix

Appendicitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of the appendix. Inflammation is caused by microbes dwelt in the lumen of the appendix.....Read More

Peptic Ulcer of the Stomach and Duodenum

Peptic ulcer is a chronic disease characterized by the presence of a chronic peptic ulcer in the mucous membrane of the stomach and /or duodenum.....Read More

Gastritis: The Pathological Science of Gastritis

Gastritis is acute or chronic inflammation of the stomach. Two forms of gastritis are differentiated – acute and chronic ones.....Read More

Primary Systemic Vasculitis

Vasculitis (angiitis) is an inflammation of blood vessels (aortitis, arteritis, arterioles, capillaritis, phlebitis, lymphangitis).....Read More

What is Sjøgren's syndrome ("Sicca Syndrome")?

Sjøgren’s syndrome or sicca syndrome is an autoimmune condition involving salivary and lacrimal glands.....Read More

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Lupus erythematosus are differentiated into three types: discoid, systemic ones and the syndrome of drug-induced lupus erythematosus.....Read More

What is Rheumatoid Polyarthritis?

Rheumatoid polyarthritis (RPA) is a systemic immunogenic inflammation of connective tissue with the predominant affection of joints in the form of chronic progressing destructive polyarthritis.....Read More

What is Rheumatic Fever?

Rheumatic fever represents itself a systemic immunogenic inflammation of connective tissue with predominant lesion of the heart.....Read More

Cardiomyopathies: The Disease of Cardiac Muscles

Cardiomyopathies(CMP) is a group of the heart diseases characterized by a prominent increase of the heart mass (cardiomegaly) with progressing heart failure.....Read More

Ischemic Heart Disease: The Science of Ischemic Heart Diseases

Ischemic heart disease (IHD) represents itself the cardiac form of atherosclerosis, so the synonym of the Ischemic heart disease is a coronary disease of the heart.....Read More

Carcinoma of the uterus: Uterine Cancer

Carcinoma of the uterus or uterine cancer takes the 2-nd place among all malignant tumors in women after carcinoma of the breast.....Read More

Carcinoma of the Breast: Breast Cancer

Carcinoma of the breast (CB) or breast cancer is the most frequent form of cancers in women. It is characterized by considerable genetic predisposition.....Read More

Carcinoma of the Stomach: Stomach Cancer

Carcinoma of the stomach (CS) or stomach cancer is one of the most common forms of malignant tumors of a mankind. Men suffer from CS in 2-2.5 times oftener than women.....Read More

What is Biological Compensatory Processes?

Biological compensation is a complex of morpho-functional changes in cells, organs, and organism in response to the constant changes of outer and inner conditions of living. ....Read More

The Science Behind Healing of Wounds

Healing of wounds is natural biological processes which represent itself the partial case of reparative regeneration.....Read More

Science Behind Regeneration: Biological Process of Healing

Regeneration is a permanent process of morpho-functional restoration of intracellular structures, cells, and organs in response to their destruction. Regeneration proceeds at intracellular and cellular levels.....Read More

Diseases Related to Congenital Immune Deficiency with Cellular Immunity Disturbances

There are several diseases which are related to congenital immune deficiency disorders with cellular immunity disturbances. Here are two basic diseases which are common are described.....Read More

Diseases of Congenital Immune Deficiency with Humoral Immunity Disturbances

The two main types of diseases related with congenital immune deficiency with humoral immunity disturbances are, X- linked agammaglobulinemia and selective IgA deficiency.....Read More

Diseases Related to Congenital Immune Deficiency with Phagocytic Cell Impairment

There main diseases related to Congenital Immune Deficiency with phagocytic cells impairment are of two types, chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and chediask higashi’s syndrome (family hemolytic syndrome).....Read More

What is Ataxia-Telangiectasia or Louis-Bar Syndrome?

Ataxia-telangiectasia also was known as Louis-Bar syndrome is a combined immune deficiency syndrome. ....Read More

What is Severe Combined Immune Deficiency?

Severe combined immune deficiency (SCID), or Swiss-type agam¬maglobulinemia - is the most severe form of immunodeficient and is characterized by profound defects in both humoral and cell- -mediated immunity.....Read More

Diseases related with Secondary Immuno Deficiency

There are lots of clinical situations, which are compli¬cated by the secondary Immuno Deficiency development.....Read More

Pathology of Allergic and Autoimmune Diseases

Allergic and Autoimmune diseases develop in predisposed patients in response to some antigens of exogenous and endogenous origin (allergens, autoantigens).....Read More

What is Immuno-Pathological Processes?

Immunopathological processes (IPP) represent themselves a wide group of diseases which develop due to different immunodeficient.....Read More

Pathology of Chronic Inflammation

Chronic or Productive (or proliferative) inflammation is characterized by predominance of the proliferation stage over alteration and exudation.....Read More

What is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation?

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (thrombi hemorrhagic syndrome) are acute, subacute or chronic pathological process characterized by generalized coagulation of the blood in microvessels.....Read More

Pathology of Chronic Heart Failure

Chronic heart failure develops as a result of numerous diseases of the heart. These are ischemic heart disease, heart insufficiency in arterial hypertension, in myocarditis, in patients with congenital or acquired vicious of the heart valves.....Read More

What are Apoptosis and Atrophy?

Apoptosis and atrophy are kinds of cellular death because of different types of mechanisms. Apoptosis and atrophy are two different kinds of pathological process. ....Read More

Necrosis: The Occurrence and Basic Clinical Science of Necrosis

Necrosis is a pathological process which results in the local and massive death of cells in a living organism. The surrounding tissues react to necrosis with inflammation.....Read More

Basic Clinical Science of Pigment Metabolism

The pigment is a colored substance of endogenous or exogenous origin. There are many kinds of pigments of endogenous origin in an organism of a human being.....Read More

Amyloidosis: Basic Pathology of Amyloidosis

Amyloidosis are the group of diseases characterized by the accumulation of a pathological substance – amyloid in the stroma of different organs.....Read More

List of Pathological Diseases or Disorders Related with Blood and Lymph Circulation

Blood and lymph are one of the basic components of a living body; it plays a wide variety of vital functions which helps to maintain the normal physiologic functions of our body.....Read More

List of Pathological Disorders or Diseases Arises due to Degenerative Processes

As the degenerative processes result in disturbance of the normal physiologic functions of the cells, this results in different groups of diseases. Here we will discuss this pathology and their clinical symptoms.....Read More

Cellular Pathology: The Basic Causes of Diseases

Cellular pathology, disturbance of normal cellular functions, it is of two types, specific and non- specific cellular pathology.....Read More

Complication and Treatment of Sepsis

Every clinical problem can lead to complication if it is not well treated, as sepsis occurs as a result of microbial infections so it is very necessary to treat sepsis with proper medication.....Read More

Sepsis: Basic Clinical Science of Sepsis

Sepsis is a very serious problem for all medical science and surgery in particular. This state represents a generalization of an infection which proceeds because of break of the infectious beginning in the blood system.....Read More

General Anesthesia: The Clinical Science of General Anesthesia

General Anesthesia or Narcosis is artificially caused reversible state at which reactions of the organism to an operational trauma and other stimuli are switched off or reduced temporarily.....Read More

Basic Clinical Knowledge of Phlegmon

Phlegmon is a diffused spreading of inflammation with the formation of a purulent type of exudates.....Read More

Basic Clinical Knowledge of Lymphadenitis

Lymphadenitis is an inflammation of lymph nodes. It is, as a rule, a secondary disease, primary lymphadenitis is uncommon.....Read More

Basic Clinical Knowledge of Hidradenitis

Hidradenitis is acute purulent inflammation of apocrine sweat glands which is caused more often by staphylococcus.....Read More

How to Deal with General Problems of Purulent Infections

The reaction develops in the organism which breaks interrelation of physiological function and on this basis, a new condition called illness.....Read More

Non-Hemolytic Complications Complication of Blood Transfusion

There are several complications which may occur after blood transfusions. Many of these syndromes are not related with blood and blood-related functions.....Read More

Complication of Blood Transfusion: Hemolytic complications

Hemolytic complications (all post transfusion shock) are considered as the most severe complications of blood transfusion.....Read More

A Brief History of Blood Transfusion

Discovery of the phenomenon of iso- hemagglutination, and blood types are determinant in the history of blood transfusion because they promote the development of this doctrine.....Read More

Physiological Reactions of the Organism to Bleeding

As blood performs homeostatic functions in the organism, all physiological mechanisms are directed to prevention of impaired functioning.....Read More

Bleeding: A Brief Introduction and Classification of Bleeding

Bleeding is defined as penetration of blood out of borders of bloodstream which takes place by damage of walls of blood vessels or by their disturbed permeability.....Read More

A Brief History of Surgery

Surgery is the medicine area which includes the studies of the different type of diseases and injuries of all areas and organs of human body and develops the application of special methods of treatment.....Read More

Myopathy Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Myopathies are characteristic structural and functional loss of skeletal muscles. The muscle tissue gets weaker.....Read More

Cystic Fibrosis: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease which is a life threatening disease. Sex organs, liver, lungs, pancreas, sinuses and intestines are commonly affected by cystic fibrosis.....Read More

Crouzon Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Crouzon Syndrome is an Autosomal dominant genetic disorder and is also known as branchial arch syndrome. It generally affects the first arch (pharyngeal arch) which leads to abnormal development of the child.....Read More

Canavan Disease: Its Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Canavan Disease is caused by deficiency of enzyme called Aminoacylase 2. Canavan Disease is the most common cerebral degenerative disease present in the infants. ....Read More

Patau Syndrome: Causes, Diagnosis, Symptoms and Treatment

Patau Syndrome is caused due to the abnormality in the chromosome number 13. Patau Syndrome can result in the multiple organ defects.....Read More

Brittle Bone Disease: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Brittle Bone disorder is genetic disorder in which bones become so weak that, they can easily break. Bones become very fragile, it is generally present at birth, and it is an inherited disease. ....Read More

Treatment of Huntington's Disease

There is no such treatment for Huntington’s disease. But some medications are known which can depress some of the symptoms of Huntington’s disease. ....Read More

Alexander Disease: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Alexander disease is also known as leukodystrophy. Alexander disease destroys myelin i.e. fatty covering that insulates nerve fibers that help in transmission of nerve impulses.....Read More

4 Common Birth Defects

Birth Defect is a condition that exists at birth or before birth regardless of cause. Birth defect is also known by many other names such as congenital disorder, congenital disease, deformity or anomaly.....Read More

Some Common Genetic Brain Disorders

The reason behind genetic brain disorders can be the variations or the mutations in the gene. Protein generation in brain is affected due to genetic disorder. ....Read More

Treatment of Hereditary Disease

Many hereditary disorders are caused due to the changes in gene that are present in each cell of our body. Very few of the genetic disorders are treated with the help of gene therapy.....Read More

How to Treat a Burn

Burns are one of the most common household injuries but can be extremely painful. Primary burns which are not very severe can be treated at home.....Read More

Epilepsy: Its Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder which causes unprovoked and recurrent seizures. Commonly Epilepsy happens in children and older people, especially in males.....Read More

7 Tips to Treat Narcolepsy

Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder which affects the person’s control of sleeping. There are some tips which can be helpful if you are suffering from narcolepsy.....Read More

8 Best Home Remedies for Nausea

Nausea doesn't need a visit to the doctor every time; there are a lot of home remedies which can cure nausea very effectively.....Read More

Acute Pancreatitis: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Acute pancreatitis is sudden inflammation of pancreas by its own enzymes. About 80% of the cases Acute Pancreatitis is mild but in 20% of cases, it causes many serious complications.....Read More

12 Ways to Identify Gallbladder Diseases

Gallbladder is a four-inch long pear-shaped organ which sticks with the liver. Here are some of the tips to identify any symptoms related to gallbladder diseases.....Read More

How Adrenaline Affects Heart Rate

Adrenaline is a hormone and neurotransmitter which is secreted by our adrenal glands and neurons. Adrenaline is essential for maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis.....Read More

How Tuberculosis Treatment is Done

Tuberculosis is a bacterial disease which spreads through air. If you get infected with TB, the complete way of treating tuberculosis is given.....Read More

How to Treat Bronchitis

Bronchitis normally occurs when you suffer from cold or flu for more than couple of weeks. If you have mild bronchitis you can treat bronchitis at home.....Read More

Cirrhosis: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Cirrhosis is the condition in which our liver doesn’t function properly due to long-term damage. Initially, the cirrhosis shows no signs but as time passes it can transform into a fatal disease.....Read More

Tuberculosis and Its Overview

Tuberculosis is a usually chronic infectious disease caused by 3 types of Mycobacteria. If not treated properly it can cause death. ....Read More

Tips to Control Panic Attacks

Panic attack is the sudden onset of intense fear or discomfort which should be very dangerous in many cases. Here are some tips to control panic attacks. ....Read More

Definition and Principles of Child Health Assessment

Child health is one of the top most priorities of every health assessment. The children health assessment is done on basis of these characteristic criteria which determine child health. ....Read More

Topographic Anatomy of Head

Head is the most superior part in human body. Anatomically cerebral part of the head is divided into three regions.....Read More

Parkinson's Disease And Its Treatment

In Parkinson’s disease the cells which form dopamine in the brain die. There is no specific treatment to Parkinson’s disease. ....Read More

What is Crohn's Disease?

Crohn’s disease (terminal ileitis) is a chronic inflammatory affection of the intestine characterized by necrotic changes of its wall and formation of granulomas resembling tuberculous ones. ....Read More

Blood and Its Composition

Blood acts a transporting medium in our body. The main composition of blood is Plasma, RBC,WBC, and Platelets. ....Read More

Influenza: How It Happens and Effects Us?

Influenza is caused by RNA-virus which is characterized by very high capacity to spontaneous mutations. Here is how it happens and effects use. ....Read More

What is Collapse? Symptoms and Treatment

Collapse is an acute form of a vascular deficiency which is characterized by falling of vessels tonus and decrease of the volume of circulating blood.....Read More

What is Abortion or Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP)?

Abortion or Medical Termination of Pregnancy is the voluntary termination of pregnancy before the full term. Abortion is misused in many ways.....Read More

Hepatitis A: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Preventions

Hepatitis A is an infectious disease of liver which can be transmitted through fecal-oral route or by human to human. Symptoms of Hepatitis- A can be many. ....Read More

Altitude Sickness: Symptoms and Remedies

Altitude Sickness occurs when we travel from plane land to higher altitudes like mountains. Here are the causes, symptoms and remedies of altitude sickness or acute mountain sickness.....Read More

Acute Blood Loss: Its Symptoms and Consequences

The volume of loss of blood is considered deadly when the person loses a half of all circulating blood. The second important factor which defines reaction of the organism to loss of blood is the speed by which the person loses blood. ....Read More

Biological Agents behind Sepsis: Pathogenesis of Sepsis

Extremely important factors which influence the development of sepsis are the condition of the organism of the patient, the condition of primary and secondary centers of an infection, expressiveness, and duration of intoxication, the condition of the immune system of the organism. ....Read More

Neisseria Bacteria and It's Diseases

Neisseria are the small, rounded, gram-negative, aerobic bacteria. They are non-motile and non-sporulating. Gonorrhea and meningitis are the two main diseases caused by the two members of this genus named Neisseria.....Read More

Local Anesthesia: Science behind Local Anesthesia and It's Types

The purpose of local anesthesia is the elimination of pain in a limited area by blockade of the nerve- endings and nerve trunks in the body part.....Read More

Grading and Staging of Tumor Growth

Grading of tumors is based only on their histological picture that is on the degree of cellular and tissue atypism. ....Read More

Streptococcus Bacteria

Streptococci are the part of normal flora in the human body, means they are present in abundant amount in normal human beings but some of them cause pyogenic infections. ....Read More

Jaundice: The Pathology of Pigment Metabolism

In some diseases, the normal metabolism of bilirubins is disturbed with a clinical picture of jaundice. Three forms of jaundice are differentiated: epileptic, hepatic and subhepatic ones. ....Read More

Zika Virus: What We Must Know about Zika Virus?

Zika is another fever which is being spread by daytime active Aedes mosquitoes. It is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae. ....Read More

Hepatitis Virus: One of the Most Common Virus

Hepatitis is a viral infection which is caused by a virus which specifically infects the liver or results in liver inflammation. ....Read More

Basic Science of Mastitis: Prevention and Treatment

Mastitis is the purulent inflammation of breast or udder tissue occurs due to infection. The most common pathogen responsible for Mastitis is Staphylococcus aureus .....Read More

Atherosclerosis: The Science Behind Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is a systemic progressing dystrophic process in the arteries of elastic and muscular-elastic types (mainly the aorta and big arteries). ....Read More

Growth of Tumors: The Process of Tumor Growth

There are various pathological processes of tumor growth. But some are common processes and these are expansive growth, appositional growth, and metastasis.....Read More

Science behind Arterial Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

Arterial hypertension (AH) is a whole group of diseases of multifactorial origin characterized by a prolonged and stable increase of arterial blood pressure (ABP) higher than 139/89 mm of mercury column.....Read More

Thymus: The Primary Organ of Immune System

Thymus is endodermal in origin, is situated in the upper part of the chest near to heart. Structurally thymus has two layers, the outer cortex, and inner medulla. ....Read More

What is Cardiac Arrest? Things to Know about Cardiac Arrest

Cardiac arrest is an abnormality of heart rhythm.Cardiac arrest occurs when heart develops arrhythmias of the third type in which heart stops beating. ....Read More

Hepatitis: Inflammation of Liver

Hepatitis is characterized by the prevalence of inflammatory changes in the liver. Hepatitis is caused by infectious and non-infectious agents.....Read More

What is Lungs Cancer? Carcinoma of the Lungs

Lungs cancer in all countries of the world takes the first place among malignant tumors. Two main types of lungs cancer are differentiated: the central carcinoma (about 80-85% of all cases of lungs cancer) and the peripheral one.....Read More

How to treat Minor Cuts at Home

Most of the minor cuts can be treated at home by some simple first aid techniques.Here are the steps you can follow to stop bleeding and treat your minor cuts.....Read More

Cholera: The Science behind Cholera

Cholera is a fulminant infectious disease of the digestive tract with predominant lesion of the stomach and small intestine in the form of severe catarrhal gastroenteritis.....Read More

Herpes Simplex Virus

Herpes simplex is one of the most common viral infections in humans, about 60-90 percent of adults showing detectable antibody. It is spread by two members of the herpes virus family, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2. ....Read More

Diabetes mellitus: 3rd most Common Disease of the World

Diabetes mellitus is a genetically conditioned disturbance of metabolism characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, severe atherosclerosis, microangiopathies, and neuropathies.....Read More

Diseases Related with Dysfunction of Thyroid Glands: Pathology of the Thyroid Gland

The thyroid gland is one of the most important endocrine glands of our body.It plays many vital functions. Here we are going to discuss the pathology of the thyroid gland. ....Read More

How to Treat Furuncle(Boil): General Introduction of Furuncle

Furuncle is the most frequent purulent diseases. This deep staphylococcal derma represents sharp purulent necrotic inflammation of a hair follicle, sebaceous gland of hair and connective tissue.....Read More

How to Treat Anthrax: Basic Clinical Knowledge of Anthrax

Anthrax is a sharp purulent necrotic inflammation of several hair sacks and sebaceous glands with the formation of the general extensive necrosis of skin and hypodermic cellulose. ....Read More

Inflammation -The Medical Science Behind Inflammation

Inflammation is body's fight against external germs which can affect our health. Scientifically it is the complex vascular-mesenchymal reaction of tissues in response to an appearance in them of different objects with alien properties.....Read More

Cerebrovascular Disease: One of the Most Common Disease

Cerebrovascular Diseases (CVD) are the group of diseases of the brain based on acute and chronic disturbances of cerebral hemocirculation caused by different pathological changes of the cerebral blood vessels.....Read More

How to Stop Bleeding: Stasis of Bleeding

Blood is one of the most vital components of human body so it is very important to stop the bleeding because the excessive blood loss can lead to many serious complications and death. There are different methods to stop excessive loss of blood.....Read More

Theories of Carcinogenesis: The Science Behind Cancer

Nowadays the most popular theory of carcinogenesis is the theory of oncogenes, which includes in itself all above mentioned theories. Oncogenes represent themselves some groups of genes which in normal conditions stimulate division of cells in regenerative processes.....Read More

The Science Behind Tumors:Tumor Pathology

Tumors represent themselves a pathological process characterized by intensive and uncontrolled growth of a typical cells that acquired autonomous properties and pass them to the daughter cells.....Read More