Blood and lymph are one of the basic components of a living body; it plays a wide variety of vital functions which helps to maintain the normal physiologic functions of our body. Pathology of these two components results in disturbance of whole body functions. Here we are going to discuss the common pathological disorders related with blood and lymph.
Apoplexy – massive hemorrhage in some organs, usually in the brain, eyes, ovaries.
Ascitis – accumulation of edematous liquid in the peritoneal cavity. Ascites usually develops in congestive chronic heart failure and in patients with decompensated cirrhosis of the liver.
Anasarca – accumulation of edematous fluid of plasma origin in subdermal fat tissue. Usually, develops in patients with chronic heart failure.
Anemia – decrease of erythrocyte quantity and/or hemoglobin concentration in the circulating blood. Acute and chronic anemias are differentiated. In an etiologic aspect, anemia may develop after hemorrhage (post-hemorrhagic anemia), as a result of acute or chronic hemolytic (hemolytic anemia) and because of iron, protein and vitamin deficiency. All forms of anemia lead to dystrophic and atrophic changes in cells and organs.
Cells of cardiac vicious – alveolar macrophages containing numerous granules of hemosiderin. These form in patients with chronic left heart failure and may be detected microscopically in the sputum and in histological specimens of lungs.
Collapse – acute temporal arterial blood decrease. It is a reversible process and may end spontaneously without medical aid. Collapse with the loss of consciousness is syncope.
Diapedesis – outlet of blood through the capillary wall as a result of its increased permeability.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (thrombi hemorrhagic syndrome) – acute, subacute or chronic pathological process characterized by generalized coagulation of the blood in microvessels. Acute DIC leads to severe disturbances of microcirculation, hypofibrinogenemia with a subsequent loss to further blood coagulation, tissue hypoxia, increased blood permeability and as a result to intensive diapedesis of erythrocytes. DIC is highly typical for a shock.
Embolism – circulation of different abnormal particles (thrombi, gas bubbles, parasites, alien bodies, microbial colonies, particles of destroyed tissues) in the blood or lymph leading to the closure of vessels. Thromboembolism of cerebral and pulmonary arteries is the most common and severe type of embolism.
Exudate – local accumulation of inflammatory liquid in tissues.
External hemorrhage (bleeding) – outlet of blood into outside including bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract, bronchi, uterus, urinary bladder.
Hemothorax – accumulation of blood in the pleural cavities. It usually develops in the mechanical trauma of the chest, not correct puncture of the subclavian vein, carcinomatosis of the pleura.
Hemarthrosis – accumulation of blood in the joint cavity. It usually results from the trauma of the joint and may become complicated by suppuration. The trauma of the joints. Hemarthrosis is a typical complication of hemophilia and in such cases may lead to ankylosis (immobility) of the joint due to the accretion of their surfaces.
Hematoma – pathological cavity in soft tissues filled with blood. It may develop as a result of trauma, inflammation of blood vessels with their subsequent arrosion, or due to diapedesis in increased vascular permeability. Massive hematomas need a surgical opening as they may undergo to suppuration. Old hematomas undergo to an organization with possible petrification (calcinosis).
Hemopericardium – accumulation of blood in the pericardial sac. It may occur in transmural myocardial infarction because of the left ventricle wall rupture or in the severe trauma of the thorax.
Hemoperitoneum – accumulation of blood in the peritoneal cavity. Abdominal injury (knife, bullet) is the most common cause of hemoperitoneum. In more rare cases hemoperitoneum occurs in fallopian tube rupture in cases of extrauterine pregnancy.
Hemorrhage – outlet of blood from vessels into surrounding tissues or spaces. Three types of hemorrhages are differentiated: because of the vessel rupture (hemorrhagia per rhexin), because of the vessel destruction by an inflammation or malignant tumor (hemorrhagia per diabrosin) and because of diapedesis due to increased blood vessel permeability (hemorrhagia per diapedesis).
Hydrothorax – accumulation of edematous liquid in the pleural cavity. Hydrothorax usually develops in congestive chronic heart failure.
Hydropericardium – accumulation of edematous liquid in the pericardiac sac. As well as ascites and hydrothorax hydropericardium develops mostly in congestive chronic heart failure.
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purple (Werlhoff?s disease) – characterized by prominent hypocoagulation and severe hemorrhagic syndrome because of prominent decrease of blood platelets concentration.
Ischemia (local hypoemia) – sudden or gradual diminution of blood supply to any organ or a part of an organ. It usually results from spasm or narrowing of an artery lumen by mechanical compression, atherosclerotic plaque, thrombus or artery embolism. Acute ischemia evokes necrosis (infarction), chronic ischemia results in local atrophy with subsequent sclerosis of the part of an organ.
Internal hemorrhage (bleeding) – outlet of blood into closed anatomical cavities (intraperitoneal, intrapleural, Intra-pericardial bleedings and bleeding into cerebral ventricles).
Shock – acute, severe and generalized disorder of microcirculation. Microscopically shock is characterized by generalized stasis of blood, micro thrombi, microemboli, perivascular hemorrhages and micro focal necrosis of tissues. Clinically shock may have a resemblance to collapse, however in contrast to it shock is irreversible state and without of treatment always leads to death.
Sludge-phenomenon – aggregation of erythrocytes in blood vessels because of superficial negative electric charge loss of erythrocytes. Sludge-phenomenon plays the crucial role in stasis and shock.
Stasis – lifetime stoppage of blood flow in microvessels. Stasis is a kind of acute disturbances of hemocirculation and always leads to severe tissue hypoxia. Stasis may be local and generalized. Stasis in the brain, lungs, myocardium, liver, and kidneys is the most dangerous for life. Stasis develops as a result of the aggregation of erythrocytes (sludge-phenomenon).
Syncope – acute pathological process of different origin characterized by short-time loss of consciousness. Arterial pressure may fall down or on the contrary increase. The basis of syncope is acute hypoxia of the brain.
Thrombosis – the lifetime coagulation of blood in vessels and cardiac cavities. The main biological essence of thrombosis consists in reparation of a vascular wall damage.
Transudate – accumulation of a liquid of blood origin (similar to plasma) in tissues and anatomical cavities. In contrast to exudate, the transudate is poor of protein (less than 2%). Outwardly formation of transudate manifests itself by edemas.
Venous congestion (VC)– accumulation of blood in the veins. VC may be local and general. Local VC develops as a result of venous thrombosis, mechanical compression of a vein by a tumor or scar. Local VC is highly typical in patients with venous valve insufficiency (varicose veins). General VC develops in patients with total heart failure and manifests itself by acrocyanosis, edemas of low extremities, cyanotic in the duration of viscera. Prolonged VC leads to tissue hypoxia with subsequent dystrophic, atrophic and sclerotic changes in organs and tissues.