The world is in search of new alternate fuel. Every day in our day to day life we are throwing many things which are be used for the production of biogas. Biogas is produced by the anaerobic breakdown of organic matter by methanogenic bacteria. The biogas mainly constitutes of methane (60 – 70%), carbon dioxide (40 – 45%) with some amount of hydrogen sulphide, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Many bacteria which anaerobically grow on cellulosic material and produce a large quantity of methane along with carbon dioxide and hydrogen, so all these bacteria are collectively called as methanogens.
Biogas is commercially produced in biogas plant generally in rural areas. Mostly biogas plant uses cattle dung as it contains a lot of cellulosic materials with a lot of methanogenic bacteria. Along with cattle dunk, biogas plant uses the waste organic products like spoil vegetables, kitchen wastes, agricultural wastes, and a wide variety of other organic matters. After the production of biogas, the remained slurry is used as fertilizer. Cattle dunk are available in large quantity in rural areas where cattle are used for a variety of purposes.
The biogas production technology is first developed in India by two governmental institutions – Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) and Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC).
The basic step for the production for of biogas are – In the first stage the cellulose, hemicellulose, proteins, fats are decomposed by decomposer microbes into soluble compounds or monomers. In the second stage, the soluble compounds or monomers formed are converted into organic acids by fermenting microbes. In the third stage, the organic acids are converted into the final product, biogas (methane + carbon dioxide) with the help of methanogenic bacteria.
In the recent years, the demand for biogas production is getting increased because of many useful factors. Biogas is eco- friendly and pollution free source of energy. The production cost of biogas is nothing as it is produced from waste materials. The biogas is very energy efficient and eco – friendly. As for the production of biogas, cattle dunk are used so it minimizes the chance of spread of fecal pathogen and plays an important role in maintaining the sanitary condition. The remained slurry is also efficiently used as organic fertilizer for agriculture. In village areas, biogas works efficiently and economic than other source of energy for heating and cooking, lighting and many other varieties of purposes. It is the future source of energy. In present year it is used as an alternate source of energy. Many governmental and non – governmental organizations are promoting the biogas plants as in help to preserve our environment in a variety of ways. In countries like India, the uses of biogas are increasing because of its efficiency. Biogas is an efficient source of energy in those places where electricity can’t reach.