A bullet is a hard metal substance, shaped like a pointed cylinder. The bullet is contained by an ammunition cartridge, which is inserted into a firearm. We may confuse sometimes between cartridge and bullet but the cartridge is like a cover for the bullet.
There are different kinds of bullets available for different kinds of firearms but here we are only going to talk about the bullets of small and personal firearms which consist of pistols, rifles, and shotguns. Bullets are made up of different materials for different purposes. Commonly or traditionally they are made of lead or lead alloy, while the bullet jackets or cartridge is made of copper or an alloy of copper and zinc. The design of the bullet is the most important factor to consider while making a bullet. The bullet should be of very accurate size, so, that it won’t hurt the hunter instead of the target. The speed of the bullet, the effectiveness of the bullet, and accuracy of hitting the target is all depended upon the design of the target. The cylindrical part of the bullet is called shank and is heavier. Bullets made up of soft materials like lead or lead alloy cause more harm to the target as they expand after hitting, while bullets of hard materials help in penetrating in thicker targets.
Bullets can be manufactured by different ways. Large companies and governments often have automated systems for making bullets while smaller manufacturers make bullets with smaller simple tools. Some additional may be added by adding some extra steps in manufacturing processes.
Raw materials for making bullets
Lead or lead alloy are the traditional bullet core material. Aluminum, bismuth, copper, rubber, steel, tin, and tungsten can also be used in different proportions for making a bullet. Bullet jackets are commonly made of copper or an alloy of copper and zinc. Wax and lubricants are used to prevent any damage to the bullet during any machinery or pressing steps.
The casting of the bullet
Casting of bullets is done by pouring the molten metal into a mold of the desired shape and size of the bullets. After pouring the metal, the mold will be kept away for letting it cool. Once the metal has cooled the bullet is knocked out from the mold, if there are any imperfections in the bullets they are removed by cutting the extra part or filling extra metal. Some bullets have different sections of different metals; it is done by pouring different molten metals at different times. Once the previous metal is solidified, the next metal is poured.
The bullet Jacket
The bullet jackets are made from a strip or metal sheet. The smaller part of the sheet is cut out and given the form of a tube in which bullet can be placed. If the sheet material is hard, it can be annealed for making the sheet foldable. The thickness of the sheet varies from 0.08cm -0.17cm.
Jackets and bullets can be joined by various methods like swaging, soldering, gluing or electrical welding. Epoxy fluids can be used for joined them together. Soft bullets are generally coated with a lubricant, wax, or oil to prevent any foul smell from them, hard bullets are not lubricated. Completed bullets are then removed and packaged.