Modifying the genotypes of humans before birth is all about genetic engineering in humans. Genotype is the genetic structure of an individual with respect to which the particular character of an individual is shown. Genetic engineering is done to take over the control of traits that are possessed or shown by an individual after his or her birth.
The cells of our body have all the information about body’s growth, structure, the functioning of genes and body. The task of genetic engineering is to decode this information and use it for the welfare of human race.
Basically, there are 2 main type of genetic engineering –
1. Germline modification – it is the cause of permanent modification in a human as it includes the process in which the genes in early embryos are changed. The genes are modified in such a way that they are inherited thus makes it a permanent modification.
2. Somatic modification – somatic modifications as the names suggest these changes are done in a somatic cell that is all the cells expect the germ cells such as sperms and eggs. So this type of modifications is not inherited. This modification is used t treat certain diseases caused by defective or destructive genes.
Classification of human genetic engineering is done into 2 that are positive genetic engineering and other is negative genetic engineering.
Positive Genetic Engineering – it makes enhancement in the positive traits of an individual that is of great use.
Negative Genetic Engineering – it is about introducing new certain good genes into a cell of a human being so to decrease the risk of genetic diseases.
Genetic engineering in humans can help in finding a permanent cure for many diseases. In human genetic engineering, the DNA of the person is changed, this can leads to changes in the structure of DNA in a human being. If certain qualities of someone are associated with genes can be detected and can be used to implant it in embryos so to get this very quality in offspring. This will lead to customized babies.
Benefits of Genetic Engineering –
One of the major benefits of human genetic engineering is Gene Therapy. Gene therapy gets success in finding treatments of certain dangerous diseases of the heart. Now scientists are making researchers in order to find the treatment of all the genetic diseases. This will result in healthier life free of disease.
With the help of genetic engineering, we can treat certain genetic diseases and disorders even before the birth of a child that is in the fetus. In the fertilization like in-vitro fertilization, gene therapy can be used even before implantation of the embryo in mother’s uterus.
In a pharmaceutical department, the genes can be used to produce superior quality. Also, bio engineered plants and fruits can be produced t that will contain certain drugs of use.
Harmful Effects of Genetic Engineering –
1. It looks very easy to cure a disease by genetic modification but it has harmful effects also such as it can induce many side effects. While treating 1 disease it will lead to the cause of another disease.
2. The process of cloning will have the adverse effect such as loss of individuality. The human clone will be a man-made human which is against law of nature that is god is the creator of everyone.