Firstly we have to know what is cloning. It is a process of making a genetically same copy of a particular organism unicellular or multicellular and plant by means of asexual reproduction. Cloning is in nature since millions of years. In simple words, it is basically a living thing which is formed by another living thing they both have the same set of genes and DNA.
We can observe cloning in organisms like salamanders and earthworms. When an earthworm is cut down into two both of them will become an adult individual having the same genetically order of genes. Similarly, identical twins (twins that look alike each other) have the same genetic order of genes show cloning but up to some extent. These are the examples of cloning in nature that is not altered by humans.
Important achievements in the History of Cloning
Including the primates, there are various species to be cloned successfully which at last leads to make a various attempt of clone a human that’s why it cannot be ignored if we are talking about the history of the cloning. In 1880’s the scientist start to prove that how the genetic material inside the cells work for the mutation and transferring of traits from one to another, thus we can say that the thought about cloning was started in back 19 century.
First successful attempt of Animal Cloning
In 1952, Robert Briggs and Thomas J. King did the first successful experiment of animal cloning. In the experiment, they cloned Northern Leopard Frogs.
In 1962, John Gurdon cloned the South African Frogs by the help of nucleus of the fully differentiated Adult intestinal cells.
In 1998, the genome of Homo sapiens (that is of Humans) which is stored in 23 chromosome pairs was launched. It took 20 years after the deciphering of the DNA of Human. It gives the boost to the scientist to create a human clone although at this time the cloning of animals was at the basic level several scientists tried their best to create a clone of the human cell they failed.
First Mammal Cloned- Dolly the Sheep
On 5th July 1996, in the Roslin Institute of Scotland Ian Wilmut, Keith Campbell and fellow scientists were the first to successful cloned a sheep by using a somatic cell of an adult sheep with the help of nuclear transfer process. After the name of Dolly Parton an American Singer, the baby lamb was named. But this news of successful cloned was opened in 1997. It was the first successful attempt of cloning an animal. After the success in 1997, some scientist successfully cloned the 2 monkeys that were named as Neti and Ditto. So the closest primates were cloned it was a big achievement leading the human cloning.
Claims of Human Cloning
In 2002, a company founded in 1997 revealed that they had successfully cloned a human they showed the pictures of the baby name as Eve, but they refused to take a DNA test of mother and baby.
Human Cloning Prohibition Act
In 2009 a Human Cloning Prohibition Act was passed as it was thought that it is unlawful, unethical and an immoral act to make a clone of a human.