Every experiment of science has a great risk no matter what the experiment is about because no one knows the result of the experiment whether it will be in favor or against the humans and their society. One of such experiments is Cloning.
The first animal to be cloned was Dolly the Sheep in 1997. After the Dolly questions arose that now the next turn will be of human cloning. But at the time the risk was not clear about the human cloning. But now the most of the risk is clear and understandable.
1. Genetic abnormalities –
a. Gene expression – that is the clone formed will have the same genetic information as the person from whom the nucleus of a somatic cell is taken. It is not sure that the gene will express itself at the right time at the right place. Harmful genes that were not needed to be expressed can be expressed in clone as well.
b. Gene Programming – the programmed nucleus is inserted by the scientist so it is in the hands of the scientist to set up the cell to behave as a natural cell. As compared to the embryo that is created naturally.
2. Inefficient Process –
a. High Failure Rates – the failure rate of cloning is very high approx 97% even after the modern technology and huge money investments. The total number of attempts to create dolly was 276 that forms the 29 embryones and out of these embryos 3 survived and only 1 was born.
b. Incompatibility – the further development of cell depends on the compatibility of the nucleus of the somatic cell with the egg cell, it depends on the egg cell whether it will reject the nucleus or not as it is not its own nucleus.
c. Maternity problems – even after the cell and nucleus have been implanted successfully, the embryo that is implanted in mother stop its development in the mother after the implantation.
3. Trouble in Growth –
a. Lifespan – the lifespan of cloned animals is very less as compared to the animals born naturally. It is mainly due to genetic abnormalities. Dolly was also died at age of 6 due to abnormalities in genes but the average lifespan of the sheep is about 12 years.
b. Large Offspring Syndrome – scientists gave this name because it is very common in animals that are cloned as they have large organs that are abnormal which cause critical failure of organ and death of the organism. There are clones which don’t have this disorder but they have disorders of brain and kidney which as dangerous as well for life.
4. Social and Ethical issues – many religions and people had raised their voice against the cloning no matter whether it is therapeutic or reproductive. People think that it is against the law of nature and God that is only he is creator and destroyer of the humans, no human has the right to move against his laws and to give birth to a child artificially. There are questions about the religion of the cloned child about his relation whether he will be son or brother of his father as he will b genetically same as parents.