A transgenic plant is plants are created by introducing genes of the other species of plants to the plant that we are interested in for desired traits. The main purpose of producing transgenic plants is to get desired characteristics in a plant such as a pest and herbicide resistance plants, resistance to harsh conditions of environment, diseases resistance, etc. Now we will discuss transgenic plants in detail for better understanding.
A transgenic organism is a type of genetically modified organism whose genetic material that is DNA is altered to produce an organism which has desired traits. The method of producing genetically modified organism is that the genetic material that is DNA of an organism is inserted into the nucleus of a cell which is reproducing. The cell can be taken from the same species but also from different species. Basically, it is done to get a desired trait in a modified organism. Recombinant DNA technology is the technique of creating a transgenic organism. This technique is used for producing both plants and animals.
Genetically Modified Plants
Genetically modified plants are produced by injecting genetic material that is DNA of a different species into the desired plant so to obtain the special characteristics. It is more difficult to produce transgenic animals compared to transgenic plants. Plants don’t have any difference between somatic and germ cells that’s why it is easy to insert genetic material in the somatic cell to produce genetically modified plants or transgenic plants.
Hybridization and cross-breeding like terms are used for a plant that is new and has the genes of two different varieties. But this breeding was done between the plants of related species. However by the help of modern biotechnology and genetic engineering now the breeding can be done not only in plants with related species but also in plants that are of different species so to produce genetically modified plants or transgenic plants. Some of the examples of genetically modified plants or crops are Corn, Cotton, and golden rice.
Now let’s discuss the benefits and also adverse effects of transgenic plants or genetically modified plants. How they can affect our ecology system, to ourselves and to other organisms.
Benefits of transgenic plants
- Transgenic plants have the ability to resist to certain diseases.
- Also, transgenic plants have traits that are introduced by this technology such as pests and herbicides.
- Plants that are genetically engineered or modified have the ability to withstand the harsh environmental conditions such as cold, drought, high wind, etc.
- Not only this plants that are genetically engineered or modified can be cultivated of land which is abundant in salt.
- As these plants are resistant, the production of plant product is increased so to compensate the rising demand of the population.
- Increase in agriculture sector as less use of pesticides and other harmful chemicals.
Adverse effects of transgenic plants
- Plants that are resistant to pests and herbicides can produce certain harmful chemicals that will affect human and other animals adversely.
- The genetic material of transgenic plants can be transferred to plants that are not genetically altered and can create new problems. Such as genes of the herbicidal plant are transferred to a plant then the control of this plant will be very difficult.
- These plants can enhance the allergic reactions in animals and humans as well.