The Science of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Just like human, Artificial Intelligence is the machine intelligence where a machine is able to learn, react, reason and take decisions based on the present situation. Not a decade ago automation has started replacing human work that the concept of Artificial Intelligence, also referred as AI, has come into existence.artificial-intelligence

The large application of artificial intelligence is mainly seen in the computer science field.

What is Artificial Intelligence? 
Think of a machine which is intelligent enough to start, stop, act (may be based on previous actions) and learn. Isn’t it strange? Well, it’s not that strange. The concept Artificial intelligence explains the simulation of human intelligence with the machine. Many robotics projects, computer applications, industrial machines work on the basis of AI. AI is not used widely on commercial basis. But the breakthrough in AI can change many aspects of technology mainly in the field of medical science, nanotechnology and robotics.

How Artificial Intelligence Works? 
Well, it’s quite clear Artificial Intelligence is some type of advanced intelligence which machines can understand and act accordingly. Like human intelligence, Artificial Intelligence is encoded in machines in the form of program. But their works are not always fixed. Machines work by their reasoning ability, learn from past experience and stores in their memory, take right decisions and act accordingly. It’s actions are-

  • Based on present situation. Not thinking of future they take right decision for present situation.
  • Bases on the present environment and goals which keep on changing.
  • Sometimes based on past experiences. Mainly occurs for advanced AI systems.

Types Of Artificial Intelligence 
Based on its action and memory use AI can be categorized under these four AI types

Type I AI: Referred as Reactive Machines 
The first type of AI which don’t have memory to store its past experiences for future reference. The decision is taken purely on the basis of present situation. IBM’s chess-playing supercomputer called Deep Blue is one such example. The computer only plays chess on the basis of present chess board places and then make its best move. The supercomputer can predict opponents next move and decide its move based on that. Google’s AlphaGo is another example of this.

Type II AI: Referred as Limited Memory 
They have memory where past experiences are stored but are only transient. Autonomous Vehicles can be treated as this type of AI. The autonomous vehicle can store different types of object, vehicle images for futures reference but unlike human, they can’t learn from past experience.

Type III AI: Referred as Theory of Mind 
This type of AI doesn’t exist at present world. As the name speaks this next generation AI is predicted to understand the state of mind, its emotions, feelings, and expectations and thus will operate. Maybe a robot which has emotions, feelings and has its own desire can be an example of Type 3 AI. This advanced form of AI will surely lessen the gap between human and machine intelligence.

Type IV AI: Referred as Self-awareness 
The most advanced form of AI still don’t exist in the real world is predicted to have its own consciousness. The machine will have a sense of self just like human which can think what is better for itself.

Researchers need to think many things on AI before implementing. AI is a revolutionary concept in the field of technology and is hoped to be the pioneer of future technology.

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